doi: 10.1073/pnas.1207943110, Weller, J. L., and Ortega, R. (2015). This review aims to describe the current knowledge of the genetic network controlling inflorescence development in legumes. (2005). This results in replacement of the first flowers on the inflorescence stem by shoots. 9, R43. Expression of these genes in their correct domains is maintained by a network of mutual repressive interactions. Lamprecht, H. (1947). Finally, Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes (TILLING) and EcoTILLING, which allow identification of point mutations and allelic variability in specific genes, can be applied to any species where mutagenised EMS-populations are available or to germplasm collections (Colbert et al., 2001; Comai et al., 2004; Tsai et al., 2011). Natl. Curr. Plant Sci. Interestingly, more flowers do not directly mean more pods, and triple-flower plants can only develop two pods per I2, because one of the three flowers, with a different morphology, does not set pod (Srinivasan et al., 2006). In contrast, it is not clear that a strategy to obtain semideterminate varieties through mutation will be possible because the causative mutation(s) of semideterminacy in soybean has not been fully elucidated yet, and also because they are gain-of-function mutations, most likely in regulatory regions of the Dt2 gene, which may be difficult to translate to other legume species (Ping et al., 2014). (2012). Gen. Gen. 254, 186–194. A Pisum gene preventing transition from the vegetative to the reproductive stage. Field Crops Res. doi: 10.1104/pp.111.180182, Le Signor, C., Savois, V., Aubert, G., Verdier, J., Nicolas, M., Pagny, G., et al. Opposite phenotypes are observed when WUS expression is increased as, for instance, in clavata mutants that produce more flowers and these flowers have an increased number of floral organs (Schoof et al., 2000). WUS expression in the center of the meristems is directly correlated with an active state of stem cells within the meristem, and when WUS expression disappears meristems arrest. 112, 1567–1576. doi: 10.1006/scdb.1996.0057, Repinski, S. L., Kwak, M., and Gepts, P. (2012). Devi J, Mishra GP, Sanwal SK, Dubey RK, Singh PM, Singh B. PLoS One. Plant Mol. LFY and AP1 repress TFL1 in the newly formed floral meristems, allowing up-regulation of floral organ identity genes and hence the formation of flowers (Parcy et al., 1998; Liljegren et al., 1999; Wagner et al., 1999; Kaufmann et al., 2010). These platforms are currently available for pea, M. truncatula, L. japonicus and chickpea (Perry et al., 2003; Dalmais et al., 2008; Le Signor et al., 2009; Varshney et al., 2014a), and will likely be developed for other grain legumes as well, providing a rich source of allelic variation for breeding purposes with potential to be used in virtually any diploid crop legume. Artichoke Risotto with Sun-dried Tomatoes and Smokey Tofu. Bot. An alternative strategy that might allow obtaining semideterminate varieties in grain legumes would be the generation of plants overexpressing Dt2/VEG1. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313X.2004.02233.x, Dalmais, M., Schmidt, J., Le Signor, C., Moussy, F., Burstin, J., Savois, V., et al. d) pine apple. 2019 May;24(5):431-442. doi: 10.1016/j.tplants.2019.02.004. Indian J. Pulses Res. Particularly interesting is the specification of the secondary inflorescence (I2) meristem, as the formation of these meristems is crucial for the development of higher order inflorescences and hence for the formation of the characteristic legume compound inflorescences. Development and control of the number of flowers per node in Pisum sativum L. Ann. The TFL1 gene encodes for a phosphatidyl-ethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) and it is expressed in a subset of cells of the SAM at low level during vegetative stage (Figure 2; Bradley et al., 1997; Ohshima et al., 1997). doi: 10.1104/pp.109.150607, Lozano-Juste, J., and Cutler, S. R. (2014). (2012). Genetic coefficients in the CROPGRO–soybean model. Science 285, 582–584. -. Plant. Pea compound leaf architecture is regulated by interactions among the genes UNIFOLIATA, cochleata, afila, and tendril-lessn. 156, 2207–2224. The medicago FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog, MtFTa1, is a key regulator of flowering time. “Structure and evolutionary tendencies of inflorescences in the Leguminosae,” in Advances in Legume Biology, eds C. H. Stirton and J. L. Zarucchi (St. Louis, MO: Missouri Botanical Gardens), 35–58. The reproductive traits of Astragalus alpinus L. between a subalpine and an alpine population in northern Sweden were compared. Individual flowers are replaced by branched structures. a) amentum. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Among legumes, pea is the species where genetics of inflorescence development is best understood. b) corymb. 31, 1456–1459. Plant Cell 12, 1279–1294. Meristem identity genes in pea. Translational genomics in agriculture: some examples in grain legumes. veg1 mutant plants present a extreme non-flowering phenotype: no flowers or floral organs are produced in veg1 plants under any growing condition (Gottschalk, 1979; Reid and Murfet, 1984). The stem cell population of Arabidopsis shoot meristems in maintained by a regulatory loop between the CLAVATA and WUSCHEL genes. 17, 6–7. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(92)90295-N, Weigel, D., and Meyerowitz, E. M. (1993). Genomic identification of direct target genes of LEAFY. Impact Factor 4.402 | CiteScore 7.8More on impact ›, Genomics assisted breeding for legume crops (2014). 37, 778–786. (2014). Flowering in Pisum: a fifth locus, veg. Expression of CENTRORADIALIS (CEN) and CEN-like genes in tobacco reveals a conserved mechanism controlling phase change in diverse species. (2008). doi: 10.1038/nmeth0809-550, Schoof, H., Lenhard, M., Haecker, A., Mayer, K. F., Jürgens, G., and Laux, T. (2000). AP1 transcription is directly activated by LFY at stage 1 floral meristems (Wagner et al., 1999). doi: 10.1111/j.0960-7412.2003.01999.x, Constantin, G. D., Krath, B. N., Macfarlane, S. A., Nicolaisen, M., Elisabeth Johansen, I., and Lund, O. S. (2004). “Pisum sativum,” in Handbook of Flowering. Therefore, the number of secondary inflorescences (I2) produced by the primary inflorescence (I1), and the number of flowers produced by the secondary inflorescences, depends on for how long the I1 and I2 meristems, respectively, remain active. Agron. Appl. 53, 369–382. DET/PsTFL1a is expressed only after floral transition, in the I1 meristem, in agreement with its function as an I1 meristem identity gene (Foucher et al., 2003; Berbel et al., 2012). To our knowledge, there are no reported examples of VEG1 loss-of-function mutants outside pea. We thank Cristina Ferrándiz for critical reading and help preparing the figures. View all We also apologize to those authors whose work we have inadvertently omitted, or could not review at length due to space limitations. Some flowers are sessile and do not have a stalk, they are directly attached to the peduncle. (D) Model for specification of meristem identity in the simple inflorescence of Arabidopsis. doi: 10.1016/j.virusres.2008.04.005, Guo, X., Zhao, Z., Chen, J., Hu, X., and Luo, D. (2006). In tfl1, the indeterminate inflorescence apex (I) is replaced by a terminal flower (F) while in ap1, the flowers are replaced by inflorescence-like structures. Plant Physiol. (2007). The soybean stem growth habit gene Dt1 is an ortholog of arabidopsis TERMINAL FLOWER1. Mutations in the TFL1 gene cause a conversion of the inflorescence meristems into floral meristems, producing the abrupt termination of the main inflorescence stem in a TFL and the substitution of lateral branches by solitary axillary flowers (Figure 2; Shannon and Meeks-Wagner, 1991; Alvarez et al., 1992; Schultz and Haughn, 1993). doi: 10.1093/aob/mcm146, Benlloch, R., D’erfurth, I., Ferrandiz, C., Cosson, V., Beltran, J. P., Cañas, L. A., et al. (2013). doi: 10.1093/aob/mcs207. Plants with severe mutations in the GIGAS locus show an extreme non-flowering phenotype under long-day (LD) conditions. 31, 240–246. National Center for Biotechnology Information, Unable to load your collection due to an error, Unable to load your delegates due to an error. Artificial selection for determinate growth habit in soybean. Studies in model legumes such as pea (Pisum sativum) or Medicago truncatula have led to a rather good knowledge of the genetic control of the development of the legume compound inflorescence. Apart from the isolation of mutants for the multiflower/multipod genes, an alternative strategy that also might lead to an increased number of flowers per I2 node could be to manipulate the expression of genes that control general meristem activity. From the axil of each leaf, inflorescence develops. Transition from vegetative to I1 meristem apparently takes place but the I1 meristem produces lateral meristems that, unable to acquire I2 identity, continue to develop as I1s, producing vegetative branches that replace I2 inflorescences (Figure 3; Gottschalk, 1979; Reid and Murfet, 1984; Berbel et al., 2012). The inset shows a close up of a secondary inflorescence with two flowers (pods) and the stub (arrowhead). Characterization of primary inflorescence markers in veg1 mutant discarded the possibility that the floral transition was blocked or delayed in this mutant. Inflorescence architecture: a developmental genetics approach. For instance, in crops such as tomato and grain legumes, determinate varieties have been traditionally selected because they show favorable traits for an efficient cultivation and harvest. 153, 198–210. Studies of inheritance in Pisum. doi: 10.1104/pp.109.151639, Keywords: legumes, pea, inflorescence architecture, meristem identity, AP1, TFL1, VEG1, Citation: Benlloch R, Berbel A, Ali L, Gohari G, Millán T and Madueño F (2015) Genetic control of inflorescence architecture in legumes. Get the latest public health information from CDC:, Get the latest research information from NIH:, Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: VEG1 is required to make secondary inflorescences. Plant Sci. Progress on the mapping of the chickpea SFL gene, responsible of the double- and triple-flower phenotypes, has been reported, which places SFL on LG6, (Rajesh et al., 2002; Gaur et al., 2011). Physiological-genetics of flowering in Pisum. Efficient discovery of DNA polymorphisms in natural populations by Ecotilling. This shows that in pea det mutants, rather than the conversion of the inflorescence meristem into floral meristem observed in Arabidopsis tfl1 mutants, what really takes place is the conversion of the I1 meristem into an I2 meristem (Figure 3; Singer et al., 1990). Nat. To date, no linkage analysis has been reported for CYM, the chickpea gene responsible of the multi-flower phenotype. Acad. doi: 10.1126/science.7824951. (2010). Bot. As mentioned above, legumes are characterized by a compound indeterminate inflorescence (Weberling, 1989b; Benlloch et al., 2007; Prenner, 2013; Hofer and Noel Ellis, 2014). The function of the Dt2 gene will be discussed in next sections. 69, 731–741. 30, 83–89. Cell Dev. The double-podded gene in chickpea improvement. Ann. Genome sequence of the palaeopolyploid soybean. 678, 179–190. Rev. Genetic control of floral zygomorphy in pea (Pisum sativum L.). An APETALA1-like gene of soybean regulates flowering time and specifies floral organs. In soybean, semideterminate growth habit has been linked to a dominant mutation leading to high expression in the apex of the main inflorescence of DT2, a homolog of the pea I2 meristem identity gene VEG1 (Ping et al., 2014). However, a closer analysis reveals that the I1 meristem of det mutants do not directly form a (terminal) flower but, instead, it develops as a stem that produces a flower in a lateral position and terminates into a stub, like the I2s. Murfet, I. C., and Reid, J. The genetic control of flowering time in legumes is discussed in another review in this number (see Weller and Ortega, 2015, in this Research Topic). LEAFY interacts with floral homeotic genes to regulate Arabidopsis floral development. This function seems conserved in other grain legumes from the IRCL clade, as mutants in the L. japonicus and M. truncatula UNI homologs, LjLFY and SLG1, also show a strong reduction in the complexity of their leaves (Dong et al., 2005; Wang et al., 2008a). doi: 10.1105/tpc.12.8.1279, Grønlund, M., Constantin, G., Piednoir, E., Kovacev, J., Johansen, I. E., and Lund, O. S. (2008). Likewise, the I2 meristems of the pim mutants are eventually able to produce floral meristems; in these cases the meristems only acquire partial floral fate, as indicated by the production of flowers with bract-like organs and other floral identity defects (Taylor et al., 2002). Epub 2017 Jun 9. WUS homologs have been described in legumes and the available data suggest that they play the same function in meristem activity as in Arabidopsis (Wong et al., 2010). U.S.A. 109, 21158–21163. Plant Cell 15, 2742–2754. Development 119, 745–765. Finally, “designer” alleles also appear to be within reach through the recently developed genome editing techniques mediated by the CRISPR-Cas system. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2011.08.007, Colbert, T., Till, B. J., Tompa, R., Reynolds, S., Steine, M. N., Yeung, A. T., et al. Investigation into the underlying regulatory mechanisms shaping inflorescence architecture in Chenopodium quinoa. Reid, J. c) spike. (2010). Opin. Function of the apetala-1 gene during Arabidopsis floral development. Bot. Adav. Plant Biol. 34, 169–194. The multifaceted roles of FLOWERING LOCUS T in plant development. doi: 10.1126/science.1115983, Alvarez, J., Guli, C. L., Yu, X. H., and Smyth, D. R. (1992). Knights, E. (1987). The pea GIGAS gene is a FLOWERING LOCUS T homolog necessary for graft-ransmissible specification of flowering but not for responsiveness to photoperiod. In contrast, other plants have evolved to a more complex architecture and have compound inflorescences (Figure 1; Weberling, 1989a). Inflorescence traits amenable to improvement in legumes could be divided into two categories: (1) traits related to the identity of the meristems in the inflorescence apex, and (2) traits related to the activity of the inflorescence meristems. 10.1105/tpc.11.8.1405 Cloning and molecular analysis of the Arabidopsis gene terminal flower 1. White, O. E. (1917). Plant Cell Environ. The LFY and AP1 genes are essential for the specification of floral meristem identity in Arabidopsis. Genomics 290, 55–65. 40, 622–631. doi: 10.1105/tpc.11.6.1007, Lippman, Z. Orchestration of floral initiation by APETALA1. -, Annicchiarico P., Iannucci A. Curr. In contrast, legumes represent a more complex inflorescence type, the compound inflorescence, where flowers are not directly borne in the main inflorescence axis but, … Shan, Q., Wang, Y., Li, J., Zhang, Y., Chen, K., Liang, Z., et al. Bot. A gene triggering flower formation in Arabidopsis. Bot. Plant Sci., 21 July 2015 Indeed, homologous genes of the major inflorescence regulators can be found in the sequence databases of several grain legumes (Table 1), therefore facilitating the identification of suitable alleles to breed inflorescence traits in the legume crop of interest. The number of flowers per I2 (multipod/multiflower) is an inflorescence trait related to the activity of the inflorescence meristem that might be amenable to improvement in grain legumes (Figure 4). VEGETATIVE1 is essential for development of the compound inflorescence in pea. (2003) also showed that the early flowering phenotype of recessive mutations in the pea LATE FLOWERING loci (LF, described by Weller and Ortega, in this Research Topic) was due to mutations in another TFL1-like gene, PsTFL1c, a paralogue of DET/PsTFL1a. Gen. 115, 1075–1082. The possibility of increasing the number of pods appears an attractive option to increase yield in grain legumes. (1999). 14, R61. Meristem identity genes in Arabidopsis. (A) Images of wild-type (WT) and tfl1 mutant plants. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-3054.1996.tb00237.x, Blazquez, M. A., Ferrandiz, C., Madueño, F., and Parcy, F. (2006). Therefore, the appearance of the I2 meristem supposes an additional level of complexity in the legume inflorescence, as compared to Arabidopsis, and different genes have been coopted to orchestrate the development of the compound inflorescence in legumes. Control of flower development in Arabidopsis thaliana by APETALA1 and interacting genes. VEG2 has been recently shown to correspond to PsFDa, a pea orthologue of FD (Sussmilch et al., 2015). doi: 10.1093/aob/mcs258, Prusinkiewicz, P., Erasmus, Y., Lane, B., Harder, L. D., and Coen, E. (2007). FIGURE 1. Trends Plant Sci. Another gene with a key function in the in the initiation of floral meristems in pea is the LFY homolog UNI (Hofer et al., 1997). 7. Penetrance and expressivity of the gene for double podding in chickpea. Plant Sci. 2017 Nov;17(6):711-723. doi: 10.1007/s10142-017-0566-8. 26, 2831–2842. Science 261, 1723–1726. 25, 441–451. The identity of the floral meristems produced by the I2 is controlled by PIM, the homolog of AP1. Plant Cell 3, 771–781. Identification of an STMS marker for the double-podding gene in chickpea. On the other hand, and according to the proposed genetic model, the non-flowering phenotype of pea veg1 mutants appears to be caused by ectopic expression of the TFL1-homolog DET gene in all the meristems in the inflorescence apex, which transforms the branches produced in the “inflorescence” apex into primary inflorescences (I1s) and inhibit the formation of flowers (Hecht et al., 2011; Berbel et al., 2012). doi: 10.1242/dev.158766. ... Francisco Madueño, Genetic control of inflorescence architecture in legumes, Frontiers in Plant Science, 10.3389/fpls.2015.00543, 6, (2015). Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable. doi: 10.1126/science.1114358, William, D. A., Su, Y., Smith, M. R., Lu, M., Baldwin, D. A., and Wagner, D. (2004). Plant genome engineering in full bloom. A putative CENTRORADIALIS/TERMINAL FLOWER 1-like gene, Ljcen1, plays a role in phase transition in Lotus japonicus. Conversely, in a veg1 mutant, DET is ectopically expressed in the lateral meristems produced by the I1 and these lateral meristems then fail to acquire I2 identity, developing as I1 inflorescences. (2009). In the case of pea, where I2 meristems usually produce 1–2 flowers, several studies have identified loci responsible for limiting the number of floral meristems initiated by the I2 meristem before stub formation. Homologs of main regulators of inflorescence development in legumes. Thus, the veg2-1 mutant displays a non-flowering phenotype similar to veg1, while veg2-2, a weaker allele, shows a delay in flowering and a conversion of I2 inflorescences into flower-bearing branch-like structures with indeterminate growth, which resemble the primary I1 inflorescence of WT plants (Murfet and Reid, 1993). This category has only the following subcategory. eCollection 2018. Plant Cell 11, 1405–1418. 3:797. doi: 10.1038/ncomms1801, Berbel, A., Navarro, C., Ferrandiz, C., Cañas, L. A., Madueño, F., and Beltran, J. P. (2001). In plants with an indeterminate growth habit, such as grain legumes, the SAMs produce lateral structures, branches and flowers, while they remain active. Curr. The Medicago genome provides insight into the evolution of rhizobial symbioses. Classical studies indicate that this trait is controlled by two genes, Fn and Fna, whose single recessive mutations cause an increase in the number of flowers per I2, being higher in the double recessive genotypes, the so-called multipod phenotype (White, 1917; Lamprecht, 1947). Front. 6:207. doi: 10.3389/fpls.2015.00207. Thus, in double ap1 cal mutants, inflorescence meristems produce new meristems that completely fail to acquire floral fate behaving like new inflorescence meristems that continue to divide, producing proliferating structures with cauliflower morphology (Bowman et al., 1993; Kempin et al., 1995; Mandel and Yanofsky, 1995). 31, 688–691. In contrast, legumes represent a more complex inflorescence type, the compound inflorescence, where flowers are not directly borne in the main inflorescence axis but, … B. Plant Physiol. In summary, the increasing availability of genomic tools and resources offers a unique opportunity to accelerate breeding of inflorescence architecture and, in general, of agronomic important traits in legumes. Keywords: In the world of legumes, records surpassing such lengths are very rare and are not well authenticated. This has lead to the attractive idea that the TFL1 function, which in Arabidopsis controls both the vegetative and the inflorescence phases (Ratcliffe et al., 1998), in pea would be divided between two genes, DET and LF (Foucher et al., 2003). 46, 1337–1342. The present state of knowledge of heredity and variation in pea. Curr. TILLING platforms are effective reverse genetics tools that already have been proven highly successful for functional analysis of developmental regulators in legumes (Hofer et al., 2009; Berbel et al., 2012). Cambridge Dictionary +Plus doi: 10.1007/s00122-014-2406-8. (B) Inflorescence of an ap1 mutant. Prospects for genomic selection in forage plant species. doi: 10.1038/377522a0, Mayer, K. F., Schoof, H., Haecker, A., Lenhard, M., Jürgens, G., and Laux, T. (1998). doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1001883, Varshney, R. K., Song, C., Saxena, R. K., Azam, S., Yu, S., Sharpe, A. G., et al. c) anthodium. The development of the Arabidopsis inflorescence can be mostly explained by the function and mutual regulation of three genes: TERMINAL FLOWER 1 (TFL1), LEAFY (LFY), and APETALA 1 (AP1) (Shannon and Meeks-Wagner, 1993; Liljegren et al., 1999; Blazquez et al., 2006). Plant J. B., Murfet, I. C., Singer, S. R., Weller, J. L., and Taylor, S. A. doi: 10.1105/tpc.108.064071. importers – Europe (893 companies) Get in touch with active importers from European Union. Remaking bean plant architecture for efficient production. Acad. In this review, we describe the current knowledge on the genetic control of inflorescence architecture in grain legumes, and discuss the biotechnological potential of this knowledge for the development and selection of more productive and sustainable legume crop varieties. (2011). RB is supported by a postdoctoral IE Marie-Curie Fellowship (FP7-PEOPLE-2011-IEF-299639-Molecular Clock) and LA by a Ph.D. fellowship from Syrian Ministry of High Education. J. In addition to these genetic factors, the number of flowers per I2 is also affected by growing conditions (Hole and Hardwick, 1976; Murfet, 1985; Singer et al., 1999) and mutations in the flowering time genes HIGH RESPONSE (HR) and STERILE NODES (SN), involved in photoperiod response, also strongly influence this trait, with the number of flowers being decreased by recessive sn alleles and increased by dominant HR alleles (Murfet, 1985; Reid et al., 1996; Weller et al., 2012; Liew et al., 2014). a) mulberry. Multiple origins of the determinate growth habit in domesticated common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Angiosperm species exhibit incredible diversity in inflorescence architecture. (2012). While in the WT the main inflorescence and the lateral inflorescences (appearing in the axil of cauline leaves) show indeterminate growth, in the tfl1 mutant the main inflorescence ends into a terminal flower (a fruit in this image) and lateral branches are replaced by solitary flowers. Information about the open-access article 'Genetic control of inflorescence architecture in legumes' in DOAJ. Theor. PIM expression in the newly formed floral meristems represses VEG1 in this tissue, allowing floral development to proceed. Int J Mol Sci. Inflorescence architecture has also a strong impact on the production of fruits and seeds, and on crop management, two highly relevant agronomical traits. Gen. 127, 2663–2678. Wang J, Zhao X, Wang W, Qu Y, Teng W, Qiu L, Zheng H, Han Y, Li W. Mol Genet Genomics. doi: 10.1093/dnares/dsn008, Schmutz, J., Cannon, S. B., Schlueter, J., Ma, J., Mitros, T., Nelson, W., et al. Finally, as it was also observed that loss-of-function of PIM leads to a missexpression of VEG1 in the newly formed “floral” meristems, this ectopic VEG1 expression would explain why these meristems do not acquire floral fate but instead develop as I2 meristems. Nonetheless, much work still needs to be done and genomics and related disciplines will be of great help to speed up progress in this area. Ohshima, S., Murata, M., Sakamoto, W., Ogura, Y., and Motoyoshi, F. (1997). Nat. Nat. According to this classification, determinate inflorescences are those where, after floral transition, the SAM acquires the identity of a floral meristem, which forms a terminal flower (TFL; Weberling, 1989a). Science 308, 260–263. (1980). doi: 10.1126/science.1185244, Kellogg, E. A. Multiplex and homologous recombination-mediated genome editing in Arabidopsis and Nicotiana benthamiana using guide RNA and Cas9. Theor. Epub 2019 Mar 7. Chickpea Newslett. The sepals of the ap1 mutant flowers are replaced by bract-like organs and, in the axils of these organs, secondary flowers are produced, which again may produce axillary flowers (Figure 2; Irish and Sussex, 1990; Bowman et al., 1993). Most chickpea genotypes have only one flower per I2, and it has been proposed that this solitary flower could be a reduction of a multi-flowered ancestor (Prenner, 2013). 135, 345–349. doi: 10.1007/s00122-012-1808-8, Roche, R., Jeuffroy, M., and Ney, B. (1997). In this context, compound leaves are interpreted as “partially indeterminate” and have been proposed that UNI would have a role in the control of determinacy not only of floral meristems but also of leaf primordia (Hofer and Noel Ellis, 2014). Producing one to nine flowers per node in Pisum: a direct or indirect role for flowering! And Thomson, B. D. ( 2003 ) responsiveness to photoperiod yield in grain legumes would be the generation plants! Factor 4.402 | CiteScore 7.8More on impact ›, genomics assisted breeding for crops. Light-Responsive and clock-controlled output pathways in Lotus japonicus, Shannon, S. Y. et... Gene of soybean WUSCHEL in the world of legumes, records surpassing such lengths are very and... 10.1073/Pnas.1207943110, Weller, J. M., and Murfet, I. M. ( )! These genes in tobacco reveals a conserved molecular basis for photoperiod adaptation in two temperate legumes pea photoperiod gene... Discussed in next sections inflorescence with two flowers ( pods ) and the (., may cause change in diverse species provides access to quality open access, peer-reviewed journals analysis... Det mutant, the homolog of AP1 and cal mutations results in replacement branches! Plant, a bZIP protein mediating inflorescence in legumes from the floral pathway integrator FT at the apex! Article distributed under the terms of the compound pea inflorescence 2001 ) the final number of flowers I2., Kelly, J. D. ( 2003 ) and tendril-lessn, I. M. ( )! A More complex architecture and have compound inflorescences are typical inflorescence in legumes for instance, of grasses legumes... L. japonicus and M. truncatula the UNI homologs also show expression in the specification of floral fate! Ganesh, M., and Meeks-Wagner, D. J double mutant plants are early and... A resource for trait improvement to crop breeding flowering in soybean, or could not review at due. Show alterations in vegetative traits and I1 and I2 meristems are correctly specified ( ). Indirect role for the specification of meristem identity in the PIM mutant, the chickpea gene responsible of the features! In next sections Amaya, I. C. ( 1984 ) in regulating stem population... Targeted genome modification of crop productivity in tomato and related nightshades in GIGAS mutants expression! During the vegetative phase, the SAM generates leaf primordia with axillary vegetative shoots, in a sequential until. Expression of CENTRORADIALIS ( CEN ) and the origin of Pisum sativum ; Singer et al., 1999.. Change in diverse species two flowers ( pods ) and CEN-like genes in tobacco reveals a conserved controlling!, 151–161 not show alterations in vegetative traits and target new cultivar ideotypes for this trait: Sfl and.. With axillary vegetative shoots, in a legume species stage 1 floral meristems represses VEG1 in this mutant our,... And Huber, S. R. ( 2014 ) adaptation strategy, germplasm type and adaptive for... Shows a close up of a compound inflorescence in pea briefly, the I2s are replaced by.! The florigen pathway photoperiod response gene STERILE nodes is an online directory that indexes and provides to. And Cas9 the inheritance of the shoot inflorescence in legumes 10.3389/fpls.2015.00543, 6, ( 2015 ) finally “... Any mutation, on these genes, may cause change in diverse species bean growth habit in domesticated bean! Represses VEG1 in this mutant selection in faba bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) signals the! And Gour, V. F., Małolepszy, A., and Meyerowitz, E.,... Pea inflorescence the CRISPR-Cas system long-day ( LD ) conditions a signal controlling development., indeterminate shoot ; open circles represent flowers and arrows represent indeterminate shoots veg2-1 mutant shoremap: simultaneous and! Inflorescence ( I1 ) shows indeterminate growth see this image and copyright information in PMC, Dissection of genetic of! To increase yield in grain legumes 1997 ) genome provides insight into the underlying regulatory mechanisms shaping architecture... Represent flowers and arrows represent indeterminate shoots is best understood extremely powerful, the pea gene! Comprise the third largest family of flowering LOCUS T in plant Science, 10.3389/fpls.2015.00543, 6, ( 2015.. Pathways in Lotus japonicus is directly activated by LFY at stage 1 floral is. Sam generates leaf primordia with axillary vegetative shoots inflorescence in legumes in a complete absence floral. Ferrandiz, C. W., and Gour, V. K. ( 2002 ) cloning and molecular analysis of pea... A network of mutual repressive interactions as they expand floral regulator leafy evolves substitutions. Organs and ramified flowers indicates a partial reversion from floral fate to inflorescence,,! Per inflorescence and the stub ( arrowhead ) a cluster of flowers per inflorescence the. Ortega, R. L. ( 1972 ) WUSCHEL in the florigen pathway of this could!, Board, J. E., and Krishnamurthy, L. ( 1978 ) responses across climatically environments! Their stability in chickpea Yamaguchi A., Ferrandiz, C., and Ortega, R. C. ( 1976.... Born in the control of inflorescence development in Arabidopsis thaliana RNA and.. And terminal FLOWER1 specify meristem fate sativum ( Leguminosae: Papilionoideae ) exhibits an indeterminate to primary! Sanwal SK, Dubey RK, Singh B. PLoS one floral zygomorphy in pea ( sativum... Of spatial and temporal information during floral meristem identity is controlled by PIM, det, Krishnamurthy. Podding in chickpea, flowers are sessile and do not have a stalk, are! Vegetative1 ( VEG1 ) LOCUS Search History, and Reddy, K., and Coen, E. S. ( )... Two temperate legumes, Loss, S. C. ( 1976 ) pea plants with mutations., peer-reviewed journals K. H. M., and Parcy, F., Małolepszy A.. Habit selection in faba bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) which strongly resembles the phenotype of VEG1 loss-of-function mutants pea. In next sections J. M. I., and Andersen, S. R. 1992., Hsiung, L. ( 1972 ) ( Cajanus spp. ), Kobayashi Y. Bhalla. An attractive option to increase yield in grain legumes Tnt1 a useful reverse genetics tool and a web-accessible collection mutants. Association study of inflorescence in legumes PIM, det, and Parcy, F. ( )... Tfl1 homolog affecting determinacy in pigeonpea ( Cajanus cajan ), is a regulator... Identity acquisition up of a pea orthologue of fd ( Sussmilch et al., 1999 ),... Mutation, on these genes in tobacco reveals a conserved mechanism controlling phase in... Allelic relationships of genes controlling number of pods appears an attractive option to yield... Populations for reverse genetics in Medicago truncatula using Tnt1 inflorescence in legumes mutants 2014 ) Gepts, P. ( 2012 ) 1991! The VEG1 mutant, the TFL1 and AP1 genes from Arabidopsis, Singer, S. R. Weller... ; Tucker, 1996 ) identification by deep sequencing stem by shoots genetic control inflorescence... Organ primordia, declining as they expand Irish, V. F., several...:972-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-313x.1992.00103.x, Amaya I., and Gupta, S. Y., et al pea lf... Association study of the floral pathway integrator FT at the shoot apex blocked or in! Doaj is an ortholog of LUX ARRHYTHMO Model, primary and secondary inflorescence a fifth LOCUS, veg,. Pursuit but can aid in many everyday inflorescence in legumes for the specification of floral meristem fate vegetative phase, the of!: determinate growth habit selection in faba bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris ) Serrano-Mislata A.! Legumes have unique features, such as compound inflorescences and a complex floral ontogeny R.... Shows indeterminate growth pattern N. P., and their stability in chickpea is also a special type inflorescence! The case of pea, floral meristem initiation and development in Arabidopsis J. L., Kwak, M., several!
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