Making an ethical decision often means weighing different values against one another. The idea is that I am making myself available as a “team-member” to work with other family-members in ensuring that auntie, and everyone else in the family, get the assistance needed. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. These virtues are dispositions and habits that enable us to act according to the highest potential of our character and on behalf of values like truth and beauty. Second, we ask who will be affected by each action and what benefits or harms will be derived from each. 1. We probably also have an image of what an ethical community, an ethical business, an ethical government, or an ethical society should be. Establish a framework for evaluating the dimensions of ethical actions from inviolate absolutes to “teaching opportunities.” It is also available as an app. The second problem is that the different approaches may not all answer the question "What is ethical?" Either of these last two would mean I can go to the concert this weekend, but my motivation is doing what best helps the family. This may be a system of laws, effective police and fire departments, health care, a public educational system, or even public recreational areas. (The Virtue Approach) 4. So out of any two actions the more ethically permissible would be the one that benefits the most people in the greatest amount. Which of the available options treats people with more dignity and respect? Virtues are attitudes or character traits that enable us to be and to act in ways that develop our highest potential. Why? The following are five universal approaches to consider when making those decisions: Utilitarian Approach - What benefits and what harms will each course of action produce, and which alternative will lead to the best overall consequences? While she has no children of her own, you are her favorite among all her nieces and nephews. Therefore, the most ethical thing to do is what provides the most good for the community. When I choose to visit my sick I aunt, I should be motivated out of respect for her as a sick, elderly lady with no children of her own; I should try to understand her loneliness and vulnerability, and I should visit her because of my respect for her and my willingness to see her treated well. Or can we at least try to do more good than harm with our choice? Share: Photo courtesy ShutterstockEthical dilemmas will pop up from time to time at the office. This framework for thinking ethically is the product of dialogue and debate at the Markkula Center for Applied Ethics at Santa Clara University. Utilitarianism is one of the most common approaches to making ethical decisions, especially decisions with consequences that concern large groups of people, in part because it instructs us to weigh the different amounts of good and bad that will be produced by our action. Justice requires that we be fair in the way we distribute benefits and burdens. All human beings should be treated with dignity simply because they are human. All ethical theories are sourced from a fundamental principle, or multiple fundamental principles where most would people agree on a most basic level. Lots of research show they can improve decisions, through three effects: Being different, they think differently. Another attempt at making an ethical decision is to consider the decision from both points of view by mentally placing yourself (with your belief system) into each opposing position and then consider the decision from each position. What are the relevant facts of the case? In The Book of Virtues, William Bennett notes that virtues are “habits of the heart” we learn through models—the loving parent or aunt, the demanding teacher, the respectful manager, the honest shopkeeper. Many people are not religious, but ethics applies to everyone. While individual interest is considered, the common good holds more moral weight. • Keep in mind that is often difficult to agree on exactly which rights we have. Have all the relevant persons and groups been consulted? More recently, contemporary ethicist John Rawls defined the common good as “certain general conditions that are…equally to everyone’s advantage.” In this approach, we focus on ensuring that the social policies, social systems, institutions, and environments on which we depend are beneficial to all. Make Your Decision. Both favoritism and discrimination are unjust and wrong. We have found the following framework for ethical decision making a useful method for exploring ethical dilemmas and identifying ethical courses of action. Take care of your company. Does it treat everyone in the same way, or does it show favoritism and discrimination? This argument basically says that humans are unparalleled in the fact that they can freely make decisions to do and act how they want. Law can be a function of power alone and designed to serve the interests of narrow groups. What approach can you take to ensure ethical decision making What trends have from CS PPIT at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad • Presents a vision of society as a community whose members are joined in a shared pursuit of values and goals they hold in common. Many philosophers and ethicists have helped us answer this critical question. The Virtue Approach A very ancient approach to ethics is that ethical actions ought to be consistent with certain ideal virtues that provide for the full development of our humanity. It states that “favoritism and discrimination” are immoral, so all humans should be treated alike. If you have any doubt about saying Yes to any of the questions then you should think about things more carefully. If I told someone I respect -- or told a television audience -- which option I have chosen, what would they say? This approach starts from the belief that humans have a dignity based on their human nature per se or on their ability to choose freely what they do with their lives. Because of this ability humans have a “fundamental moral right” for others to accept and not interfere with these choices. The concert is being performed by your favorite band, who you’ve been waiting almost a year to see perform live, and you bought the tickets for you and your partner to share the experience together. (Manuel Velasquez, 2015) Following are the steps that can help in reachin… How can my decision be implemented with the greatest care and attention to the concerns of all stakeholders? Consider your primary community; however it is reasonable to define it. Compliance programs increasingly take a legalistic approach to ethics that focuses on individual accountability. Making ethical decisions is easier said than done. The Rights Approach Other philosophers and ethicists suggest that the ethical action is the one that best protects and respects the moral rights of those affected. (The Utilitarian Approach), Which option best respects the rights of all who have a stake? Here are five ethical hiring and work decisions managers can and must make to save their company millions and even billions over the long haul. The Ethical Decision-Making Framework can be used to assist pharmacy professionals in assessing a situation that poses a more complex ethical dilemma. The Framework can be used to guide decision-making and actions about ethical issues that arise from the bedside to the boardroom. Making good ethical decisions requires a trained sensitivity to ethical issues and a practiced method for exploring the ethical aspects of a decision and weighing the considerations that should impact our choice of a course of action. ethical. 2. Making good ethical decisions requires a trained sensitivity to ethical issues and a practiced method for exploring the ethical aspects of a decision and weighing the considerations that should impact our choice of a course of action. As such, leading ethically requires a new approach that embeds ethics into the process of decision-making. A CEO’s job is to ensure there are secure, accessible channels in place for employees to report their concerns, and that any allegations are addressed swiftly and thoroughly. Fairness or Justice Approach- which action treats people fairly? Take care of your supervisor. • Keep in mind, different communities may identify differing virtues. Try always to appreciate the fact that many methodologies can work together well, if first we take the time to understand and integrate them. We may not agree on what constitutes the common good. Thank you for inviting me to speak to you today on the very important and topical issue of ‘The Merit Protection Commissioner and Ethical Decision Making’. The idea here is that people should always strive to find the proper balance between extremes in any circumstance DEFINE THE ETHICAL ISSUE(S)  Don’t jump to solutions without first identifying the. This theory states that the moral and ethical thing to do is the action that will produce the most good. Do I want to be the sort of person who only visits his sick elderly aunt to get her money? On what do we base our ethical standards? And third, we choose the action that will produce the greatest benefits and the least harm. If so, how? What are the options for acting? The reason this is so hard to answer is that ethical implies making a moral choice. Do I know enough to make a decision? The Common Good Approach . or "Is this action consistent with my acting at my best?". Now ask something like, Can we get beyond our own interests to make that community stronger? We pay people more based on their harder work or the greater amount that they contribute to an organization, and say that is fair. In a recent interview with the AICD, Dr Longstaff discussed the new guide Ethics in the Boardroom: A Decision-Making Guide for Directors and outlined how directors can go about navigating this ethical terrain. Rights Based Approach – which action respects the rights of everyone involved? He has attended Elon University, Unversity of Arkansas and University of California-Santa Barbra. 1. An ethical decision-making approach can: clarify thinking about the issue/dilemma ; assist in the analysis of the issues involved, the dissection of the presenting problems and clearer identification of the dilemma ; provide an individual or organisation with a rational way in which to defend a particular course of action (Fry and Johnstone, 2008). This question answers the dilemma of which option will produce the greatest benefits and least harm. 4. Once you have made your final decision and put it into action, it is necessary to evaluate the decision and the steps you have taken to ensure that it works. The foundation of ethical decision-making involves choice and balance; it is a guide to discard bad choices in favor of good ones. What sort of person would put his own fun-time aside in order to visit his ailing aunt in the hospital? The common good is a notion that originated more than 2,000 years ago in the writings of Plato, Aristotle, and Cicero. Identify the obligations (principles, rights, justice) 7. Law can become ethically corrupt, as some totalitarian regimes have made it. So to apply this approach one must think as to what they should do, and what there virtues tell them to do. And when our company is Multi-National, it is vital to understand any aspects of differing approaches used in the various host-countries in which we operate. Companies become ethical one person at a time, one decision at a time. Reference no: EM132680339 Question: Write a 6-8 page paper (deliverable length does not include the title and reference pages) • Why are organizations If I am thinking about traditional virtues such as honesty, courage, faithfulness, integrity, etc., then I will ask myself which course of action best embodies these virtues. Ethical warfare balances the good achieved in ending terrorism with the harm done to all parties through death, injuries, and destruction. The basic idea here is that people have a right to be treated with respect and dignity. It is recommended that you review the Practice ... We recommend following these steps to ensure you make the best decisions when it comes to children and families in your practice: 1 Identify and focus on the facts of your situation • Avoid making assumptions about the motivations of others. Are we able to draw on our community’s strengths to help in our own process of becoming a better business? Simply stated, ethics refers to standards of behavior that tell us how human beings ought to act in the many situations in which they find themselves-as friends, parents, children, citizens, businesspeople, teachers, professionals, and so on. May 19 2016 at midnight. If you don’t know where you stand, or if … A strong moral code of conduct and common sense. In the end, we must strive to achieve the greatest harmony of virtues. Publish your guiding principles. Having a method for ethical decision making is essential. Appeals to the common good urge us to view ourselves as members of the same community, reflecting on broad questions concerning the kind of society we want to become and how we are to achieve that society. Dr. Meeler is a professor at Winthrop University. People have moral rights, especially the fundamental right to be treated as free and equal human beings, not as things to be manipulated, controlled, or cast away. ( Log Out /  4. One of the most noticeable ways that companies can demonstrate their commitment to creating an ethical organizational culture is to ensure that top managers and leaders lead by example. Favoritism gives benefits to some people without a justifiable reason for singling them out; discrimination imposes burdens on people who are no different from those on whom burdens are not imposed. Some cultures are quite ethical, but others become corrupt -or blind to certain ethical concerns (as the United States was to slavery before the Civil War). Imagine this: You are riding on a trolley one day when it loses its path … Utilitarianism was conceived in the 19th century by Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill to help legislators determine which laws were morally best. Of course, many different, but related, rights are thought to exist — besides this basic one. Identify the affected parties (stakeholders) 5. Ask yourself one question, how do other people effected feel? Some other rights might include such things as rights to the truth, privacy rights, a right not to be injured, and a right to what is agreed (i.e., we have a right to what has been promised by those with whom we have freely entered into a contract or agreement). in the same way. Of course, if you factor in the likely effects on my inheritance, my “happiness-quotient” goes way up if I visit auntie in the hospital. the first step to making better choices; taking a systematic approach is the second. Leaders need to decide why an ethical decision needs to be made and the outcomes that are desired for the decision. Ethics is not following the law. Utilitarian The utilitarian approach to ethical decision making focuses on taking the action that will result in the greatest good for the greatest number of people. • Each person has a fundamental right to be respected and treated as a free and equal rational person capable of making his or her own decisions. Instead, you need to understand what matters to you. So, when I think about what to do this weekend, I do not focus on happiness (like utilitarianism), nor do I focus on building a virtuous character for myself, nor on respecting my aunt’s needs. We all have an image of our better selves-of how we are when we act ethically or are "at our best." Honesty, courage, compassion, generosity, fidelity, integrity, fairness, self-control, and prudence are examples of virtues frequently cited throughout the world. If you … We’ll explore both of these steps in this chapter. However, a family is an obvious example of a ‘community’. This ethical theory is summarized in the quote “An action or policy is morally right only if those persons affected by the decision are not used merely as instruments for advancing some goal, but are fully informed and treated only as they have freely and knowingly consented to be treated.” The next approach Meeler offers is the Utilitarian Approach. A meta-analysis of 143 gender studies suggests that higher ethical decision-making scores associated to women can be attributed to their higher social desirability response biases. Reframe the problem It was last revised in May 2009. Ethics is not following culturally accepted norms. A good system of law does incorporate many ethical standards, but law can deviate from what is ethical. Treatment of Employees. Stop and think: This provides several benefits. Telos is a Greek word meaning "end" or "goal"; thus, teleological ethics is concerned with how choices will affect a particular desired moral outcome. • The principle states: “What is ethical is what develops moral virtues in ourselves and our communities.”. For example, if I do visit my sick aunt, I must not choose to do so in order to ensure that I obtain her inheritance. My family? The ethical corporate action, then, is the one that produces the greatest good and does the least harm for all who are affected -- customers, employees, shareholders, the community, and the environment. Does any one of the available options do more good than harm? 5 Approaches to Ethical Decision Making. Does any one of the available options make our community better as a result? • Focuses on how fairly or unfairly our actions distribute benefits and burdens among the members of a group. • The principle states: “Of any two actions, the most ethical one will produce the greatest balance of benefits over harms.”. Following an ethical decision-making process enables you to: Helpful Resource! Courses he has taught range from logic to bio-medical ethics. It is helpful to identify what ethics is NOT: There are two fundamental problems in identifying the ethical standards we are to follow: If our ethics are not based on feelings, religion, law, accepted social practice, or science, what are they based on? Discussion, posthumanism and international affairs to name a few standards in some important areas, destruction! Obvious that the actions are ethically right or wrong depending on their effects, so all humans should treated! 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