General strikes, land occupations, and urban uprisings announced the masses’ entry into the political scene against the Somoza regime in the first months of 1979. The Nicaraguan working class, although not very numerous relative to the total population, played a prominent role in this revolution even though they did not advance to form their own organs of power⁠—nor did any organization exist before, during, or after that could guide them in this direction. [22] As a result, in September 1980, UNESCO awarded Nicaragua with the “Nadezhda K. Krupskaya” award for their successful literacy campaign. The U.S. made attempts to reach an agreement to reinstitute the Guardia Nacional fairly but the rebels would accept only complete surrender. Throughout the previous three years, the Nicaraguan working class carried out general strikes, dozens of partial strikes, and ultimately an insurrectionary strike that included hundreds of armed workers in the neighborhoods and in the countryside, many of them as FSLN fighters. On July 19, the FSLN forces entered the capital and installed the Government Junta. Then began the disarmament of the population and the strengthening of an army, the Sandinista People’s Army (EPS). This was followed by the literacy campaigns of 1982, 1986, 1987, 1995 and 2000, all of which were also awarded by UNESCO. By not fulfilling the fundamental demands that the Nicaraguan revolution had called for, such as the agrarian revolution, the expropriation of the bourgeoisie, and national liberation, the Sandinista government lost ground in the midst of a crisis provoked by the U.S. war of economic harassment and sabotage and by the Contras. The Reagan administration had launched an openly interventionist policy of counterrevolution. From 1927 to 1933, Augusto César Sandino led the struggle against U.S. imperialism and the Díaz government. Italics of "properties" are from this editor. [26] As early as 1981 (some sources say 1980)[citation needed] an anti-Sandinista movement, the Contrarrevolución (Counter-revolution) or just Contras, was forming along the border with Honduras. But this sinister attack did not break the will of a people who redoubled their efforts in the revolutionary struggle. All sectors of the economy were restructured, actually heading into a mixed economy system. The revolution in Nicaragua occurred in the context of a revolutionary situation in a region shaken by constant political and social upheavals during the mid-1970s and 1980s. Nicaragua was ravaged by a brutal economic crisis. The candidate for UNO was Violeta Barrios de Chamorro, a member of the original Junta de Reconstrucción Nacional (National Reconstruction Junta) and widow of Pedro Joaquín Chamorro, assassinated by Somoza on January 10, 1978. Popular discontent grew from September 1977 onward. Nicaragua revolted, an unprecedented revolutionary crisis opened up, and Somoza’s fall was imminent. They controlled the production of textiles, cigarettes, fertilizers, oils, cobblestones, nails, ice, copper, citrus, prefabricated houses, cement, and other products and resources. [9] The Somoza Regime, which included the Nicaraguan National Guard, a force highly trained by the U.S. military, used torture, extra-judicial killings, intimidation and censorship of the press in order to combat the FSLN attacks. For this reason, after President Reagan’s election, the imperialist counteroffensive began, organizing the “contra” (counterrevolutionary) mercenary armies. Making New Men and New Women in Nicaragua, 1975–2000, Page 120. "Article 1 of the Agrarian Reform Law says that property is guaranteed if it laboured efficiently and that there could be different forms of property: The principles that presided Agrarian Reform were the same ones for the Revolution: pluralism, national unity and economic democracy."[20]. Oleg Ignatiev, "The Storm of Tiscapa", in Borovik and Ignatiev. While this complex process is beyond the scope of this article, it is important to note that the main objective behind the negotiations was the dismantling Central American revolutions. Minnesota is a Blue State. After two days, the government agreed to pay $500,000 and release certain prisoners resulting in major victory for the FSLN. This alliance would only be possible through tireless fights against the influence of the liberal bourgeoisie, including those opposed to the Somoza dictatorship. There was a strong U.S. military presence from 1911 to 1933, and it was those troops who built the genocidal National Guard and put at its head Anastasio Somoza García. Nicaraguan Revolution. The war shook not only Diaz’s government but also the already-weakened state structure as a whole. International observers declared the elections free and fair,[30] despite the fact the Reagan administration denounced it as a "Soviet style sham". *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. The Somoza family became Nicaragua’s richest, accumulating wealth through … To do so, it was necessary to completely destroy Sandino’s army, massacre the peasants who supported him, and assassinate Sandino himself, who by then was known as the General of Free Men. The Nicaraguan Agrarian Reform developed into four phasesthis aspect alone of the Nicaraguan Revolution should be developed into a new article: In 1985, the Agrarian Reform distributed 235,000 acres (950 km2) of land to the peasantry. In the days that followed, insurrections broke out in several cities across Nicaragua. Of the three, the last one was considered the most left-wing, but the programmatic and political differences between the three were not significant enough to lead to major confrontations. After the U.S. defeat in Vietnam, a revolutionary upheaval took place in Central America that lent new momentum to struggles of workers, agricultural proletarians, the urban poor and poor peasants. Dodson, Michael, and Laura Nuzzi O'Shaughnessy (1990). After Somoza’s escape, according to a previous agreement, Francisco Urcuyo- Somoza’s Vice President- had to transfer power to the “Junta de Gobierno”: a government made up of the FSLN and bourgeoisie in opposition to Somoza . In January 1978, the journalist Pedro Joaquín Chamorro was assassinated. First published in Spanish on July 21 in Ideas de Izquierda. In the 1970s the FSLN began a campaign of kidnappings which led to national recognition of the group in the Nicaraguan media and solidifaction of the group as a force in opposition to the Somoza Regime. United States, Saudi Arabia[1][2] La revolución enredada" Lirbos de la Catarata: Madrid. 1980 - Somoza assassinated in Paraguay. The revolution in Nicaragua ended on the 19th of July, 1978 after Anastasio Somoza Debayle fled to Miami on the 17th of July while his regime crumbled. The End And The Beginning: The Nicaraguan Revolution, Second Edition, Revised And Updated (Westview Special Studies on Latin America and the Caribbean) Despite all this, the sector of the bourgeoisie present in the Junta resigned, but another sector was integrated. 40,000 people were homeless, more than 30,000 had been killed, and Somoza ’ s iron on. Revolutionary processes of Central America was plagued by U.S. imperialism negotiation process, the Esquipulas II agreements were by! 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